This study aims to explore the application and effects of integrating aesthetic education elements into university karate courses within the physical education curriculum. Conducting a semester-long experiment with 220 undergraduate students from Tongji University, the study randomly assigned students into an experimental group and a control group to compare the learning outcomes of two different teaching models. The experimental group received traditional technical training supplemented with the appreciation of world-class karate competition videos and in-depth explanations of the historical and cultural aspects of karate, while the control group participated in regular physical education classes. The results indicated that the experimental group scored significantly higher in both competitive performance and demonstration performance, demonstrating that a teaching model incorporating aesthetic education can effectively enhance students’ technical execution and aesthetic appreciation. This research underscores the importance of aesthetic education in physical education and provides a new teaching model for future sports education.