The connotation and capacity requirements of compound foreign language talents in China have been undergoing profound changes and adjustments. Based on the national foreign language strategies and policies of China in the past 20 years, this paper not only combs the correlation between national foreign language strategies and policies in recent years, but also discusses how the connotation and capacity requirements of compound foreign language talents in China have been altered with the changes of the two, so as to provide inspiration for the reform direction of foreign language majors in Chinese universities, and to provide an important reference for the cultivation of foreign language talents. Corresponding to the national strategy, China’s foreign language policy has been divided by the 30th year of reform and opening up, presenting two different stages: “bringing in” and “going out”. The focus of the ability required by compound foreign language talents has also changed from knowledge acquisition ability to communication and expression ability. Under this trend, the policy puts forward three new requirements for compound foreign language talents in the new era: first, broad professional ability; second, intercultural communication ability; third, foreign language academic ability.