Education is a kind of practical activity that faces people and educates people. Primary school education needs to understand students’ thoughts and ideas. The research of this subject mainly investigates the current situation of the needs of the 5th and 6th grade students in rural primary schools P and T in Huaihua City by issuing self-made questionnaire. SPSS22.0 was used to process the data and independent sample T test was used to analyze the differences in demographic variables of primary school students’needs satisfaction. The survey found that the average score of the satisfaction status of primary school students in each dimension from high to low is: Physical needs, safety needs, respect needs, belonging and love needs, self-actualization needs. Students of Grade 5 and 6 have less difference in overall satisfaction, but there is a very significant difference in respect needs. There is a great difference in the overall needs of left-behind children and non-left-behind children.